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The Soviet Architecture Nerd’s Guide to Tbilisi, Georgia

Tbilisi, Georgia is hallowed ground for those initiated into the cult of Soviet Modernist architecture.  One building in particular, the former Ministry of Highways, has a solid spot within the Soviet architecture zeitgeist, especially since being so heavily featured in Cosmic Communist Constructions Photographed, the recent seminal work on the style.  Yet, somehow, on our first trip to the city, in December of 2014, we neglected to really take the time to explore it (and the multitude of other buildings) in depth.  Maybe we were still giddy after just getting engaged, sick of getting hassled for taking pictures in Yerevan, or more excited about the Post-Soviet realness that is Chiatura.  Whatever the reason, on our first trip to Tbilisi, we barely cast eyes upon its brutal wonders, from passing cars or in the distance.

I made it a point to see as many of the sites as possible this time around.  I was stumbling around the Google in a random trip-related rabbit hole a week or two before we departed, and came across Brutal Tours, a company specializing in walking and photography tours around Tbilisi and other parts of Georgia.  It was a remarkable serendipity to find them, and I immediately emailed them about what they could show us in the city.


Meanwhile, I had found this map, helpfully presenting locations and pictures of many of the sites we’d be interested in visiting (including many I hadn’t heard of previously!).  Soviet architecture is really having a moment among more intrepid/off the beaten path types of travelers, and I was super happy to reap the benefits of it through this map.  And I’ve mentioned the following website before, but this website is a great resource for finding Soviet modernist structures throughout the former USSR.  The database is searchable and sortable by attributes like original building function and former Soviet state.

Helene and Maurice, the co-owners of the Brutal Tours operation, were extremely helpful and communicative during the reservation process, and were happy to put together a tour based on the places I was most interested in seeing.  We met in Liberty/Pushkin Square during a break in the rain on what was possibly the wettest day in my travel career (later to be eclipsed by our Soviet architecture day in Kyiv, but that’s another story) and started off on our packed itinerary for the day.  We weren’t bothered a bit by the rain – in fact, we welcomed it.  Gray, looming, Bond villain-types of buildings always look better shrouded in and surrounded by bleak skies anyway, right?

Former Technical Library (completed 1985)

Tbilisi University’s former Technical/Science Library was the first stop on our tour.  Armed with complex marshrutka routes to get us from place to place, we rode a short distance from Freedom square to arrive at the moribund structure.  Lacking the life it must have once had when students still occupied it, the building sat silent on one of Tbilisi’s long descents toward the river.  It is long and narrow, featuring two large port holes in prefabricated concrete slabs book ending the structure.  Between the two ends, the building resembles an accordion or a keyboard, with a line of closely spaced and totally exposed vertical support columns shaped like oars.  And while there isn’t a great vantage point for taking pictures, the building itself is worth a quick visit (especially as it’s on the way from the center of the tourist part of town toward the bigger Soviet architecture draws located more on the outskirts of the city).

 Former Ministry of Highways, current Bank of Georgia Headquarters (completed 1974)

Probably the best known building in Tbilisi (Soviet or otherwise), the former Ministry of Highways has long been a poster child for Soviet Modernist architecture and design.  Impossibly towering over the Mtkvari River in a criss-cross of office corridors stacked on top of each other, the building is a geometric fantasy.  It also happens to be one of the only buildings on this list that is still being used today – many others were abandoned after Georgian independence due to lack of funds for proper maintenance.  This is where I would usually say I’d prefer to see the building in its original state, too much polish, yatta yatta pretentious nonsense, but the Bank of Georgia did a fantastic job refurbishing the building to suit their needs.  I’ll take a remodeled old building over yet another Chinese investor-built, soulless monstrosity currently in vogue throughout the former USSR any day of the week.

Former Auditorium of the Industrial Technical College (completed 1976)

©Maurice Wolf/©Helene Veilleux

There’s something about Soviet/Modernist auditorium/cinema design that just gets me going.  We have noticed the style in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Yerevan, Armenia, and this building further reinforced the fact that these architects knew how to combine fashion and function in their designs.  Build with a natural downward slope for seating, and with a large interior wall for projection, auditoriums in the modernist style frequently resemble spaceships.  This particular auditorium, with its extremely ornate exterior decorations, toed the line between modernist and futurist, though to be fair there is a significant overlap in the Venn diagram of those two styles.  The Industrial Technical college is long gone, but its legacy remains – the attached buildings (former dormitories and classrooms) are occupied by IDPs (internationally displaced persons, or refugees) from nearby conflicts: Chechens, Abkhazians, and Ossetians are the most common.  The area underneath the auditorium is vacant and open for exploring for the urbex-inclined, but do take note that people do live there, and they deserve the same respect you’d give anyone else.

Former Archaeology Museum (completed 1988)

This is another building that’s featured in the book I linked above.  I had seen this building in 2014, from the window of our marshrutka running us from Tbilisi to Kazbegi, but it seemed inaccessible then.  This, however, is not the case.  The building is easily accessible from the main road via a dirt path.  Before you reach the former museum, you’ll encounter the monument to Saint Nino, the patron saint of Christianity in Georgia.  Saint Nino is so famous in Georgia that there is a saying that goes, “If you’re standing on Rustaveli Avenue (Tbilisi’s main thoroughfare) and shout ‘Nino!’, 75% of the women around you will respond.”  Long story short, Christianity is a big deal in Georgia, and Saint Nino is attributed as being responsible for its introduction to the country.  For better or worse, I should add.

The museum building itself is perfectly symmetrical (other than the odd bits crumbling off its edges), and rises out of the ground gracefully.  It actually reminds me of the cave at the beginning of “Aladdin” with the lion that opens its mouth for Aladdin to walk in…anyone remember that?  OK, I’ll move on.  There is a great square sculpture at the building’s apex featuring some abstract soviet bas relief of god knows what, and underneath some fantastical Georgian typography that I believe reads “Archaeology.”  The real treat of the building was in the rear (har har), where one is able to enter one of the museum’s old exhibition halls.  Whenever the building closed it must have been in a hurry, and all of the museum’s shelves, tables, and even some old exhibit descriptions sit here in various stages of rot.

Saburtalo Housing District (completed 1976)

Not originally on our list of sights to see, but added gratis by our generous hosts, were the apartment blocks of the Saburtalo district – most well known for their mid air sky bridges connecting different blocks at heights as high as fourteen stories.  The buildings were lived in, but not necessarily well maintained.  Once we figured out the elevator in the building only ran after inserting coin fare for all passengers (the elevator toll attendant took his job very seriously from his hidden panopticon) the machine lurched up and shook from side to side before depositing us on the upper floors.  Window openings had no windows, and residents strung their laundry precariously on lines strung from one building to the next.  And while I don’t consider myself as particularly susceptible to acrophobia, I did feel queasy walking across a sky bridge over 100 feet in the air, swaying rather aggressively in the wind.

©Maurice Wolf/©Helene Veilleux

The sad state of the building has stayed with me.  It seems clear that residents and authorities are aware of their dilapidated state, but no one is willing to do anything to make the buildings safer.  They’re essentially a disaster waiting to happen – improvements can’t be made because of lack of money, residents can’t move for the same reason, so are resigned to stay there until the inevitable occurs.

Former Central Aquatic Sports Center/Laguna Vere (completed 1978)

We wanted to badly to enter the remains of Laguna Vere, what was once the most extravagant swimming center in Soviet Georgia.  The structure is best known for the colorful mosaics lining its exterior, but the interior (from what we could see) is equally impressive, with modernist diving towers and brutal bleachers reaching as far as the eye can see.  But where there was once chlorinated water, now is only rogue weeds growing as high as the pool’s edge.  Our guide Maurice tried to bargain with some gentlemen working at an adjacent auto lot to let us in, but they couldn’t be torn away from their Mercedes G Class or chain smoking. We contented ourselves with walking the perimeter, vowing to make it inside on our next visit to Tbilisi.Bonus: Former House of Political Education, current Mosaic Building (completed 1970)

One of the only remaining functional buildings on this list, this one’s a real stunner.  I’ve always been attracted to shiny, colorful things (who isn’t?!), and this building’s facade is a Georgian rainbow acid trip.  It would fit in well next to Seattle’s own architectural monstrosity, the Experience Music Project, built by Frank Gehry (of Guggenheim fame) in the 1990’s.  The mosaic on the front of the building is the draw, as its architectural features are rather plain, but boy does the mosaic deliver.  It’s located just north of the pedestrian only part of Aghmashenebeli Avenue, and just south of Marjanishvili Metro Station.  Or, if you happen to be walking from the Dry Bridge to Station Square (about 3km, or 30 minutes walking), you’ll pass right by it.

We’re two guys on the go who have little patience for excessive logistics, so we booked our tour with Brutal Tours to maximize concrete viewing efficiency.  Our tour lasted about four hours and visited six of the seven sites detailed above.  Maurice and Helene arranged everything ahead of time, even our bus and marshrutka fares, so all we had to do was follow along.  Our two person solo tour was $100 – a steal in our books, as we could have never seen everything we got to see on our own in that time frame.  Maurice and Helene are also photographers, and happy to share photos from your tour.  If you’re pressed for time and interested in Tbilisi’s best Soviet architecture gems, I would heartily recommend booking a tour with them.  And if you happen to have more time, you can also join one of their tours to other parts of the region including Pankisi Gorge, Chiatura, and Rustavi.  For more information on Brutal Tours, you can visit their site here, or visit Helene’s or Maurice’s photography pages here and here.  On your tour, make sure to wear shoes that you don’t mind getting dirty, as mud is ubiquitous in the post-Soviet world, especially around abandoned places without direct road access.

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  1. Thank you for this post! I live in Tbilisi and thought I was the only weirdo who loves this architecture. You have given me a couple of new buildings to look for, too. Oddly enough, I went on a nice tour of Soviet Mosaics in Tbilisi just yesterday– though we didn’t make it to any of those wonders you show above. If you are still here and want a tour, give Nini Palavandishvili at Alternative Tours of Tbilisi a call (via FB). She is researching a book on Georgian mosaics and has co-published a great little book of postcards of local mosaics, available at museums downtown.

  2. Very interesting and you’ve sold us on Brutal Tours next time we are in Georgia. I was aware of them anyway but it’s always good to get a firsthand testimonial. Like you guys on your first visit, we seem to have missed out on Tbilisi’s brutalist architecture during our one and only time to the city a few years back and are keen to return.

    I am especially drawn to the Saburtalo Housing District and the Former Archeological Museum. Noted good footwear is essential!!!

  3. How lucky to live in Tbilisi!

    And man, how I would LOVE a tour of Soviet mosaics in Tbilisi…sadly I’m back to my 9-5 in Seattle. Will have to put it on my list for next time I’m in Tbilisi!

  4. There are so many great buildings there, and I barely scratched the surface! Brutal Tours is great in that they take care of all the logistics for you – perfect if you’re short on time and care to outsource.

    I can’t wait to see more pics of your time in Eastern Ukraine! Are you all headed to South/Southeast Asia soon?

  5. i am happy to know our map on soviet modernist architecture was a good source for your explorations. Just a small remark: museum of archeology is still a museum, though not opennfor public due to lack of financial support to renovate the building. Too sad. Next time you happennto be in Tbilisi let us kow, we also make tours on soviet archtecture next to mosaics. good luck. Susannah, thanks for recommendation 🙂

  6. Thanks for your comment Nini – too tragic about the Museum of Archaeology. Are the artifacts still inside the main front building, then? The back building was pretty trashed on the inside, so it’s interesting to know that the interior of the main hall is still technically functioning, despite being closed.

  7. Unfortunately, none of artifacts are on display, since some years already they are stored and rooms are empty. What is more important that as far as i know this was supposed to be not regular museum of archeology, but museum of Tbilisi archeology as you know tbilisi is quite an old city. In a way this museum has a tragic story, it was never completed the way architects imagined it, and never really open as it was supposed to be.

  8. Loved this post, and makes me realize how much I missed when I was in Tbilisi last year. Didn’t really catch any of these gems. Also interesting to link through and read about your issues in Yerevan. I just started posting photos I took from my trip to Yerevan in May on Insta and I had zero issues with anyone speaking to me about my camera or phone when snapping. I’ve actually never had anyone anywhere I’ve been ever yell at me for photography, so I think I’m very lucky.

  9. Your lack of issues make me wonder if race was an issue when we were in Yerevan. I can pass as Caucasian (lol, never thought I’d write that) so maybe I was more suspicious?

    And I’m betting you didn’t need a reason to go back to Tbilisi 🙂 ❤️??

  10. We are heading back to Asia in early October – we NEED the food fix!! We won’t be doing too much travelling though so hopefully we will get round to writing up some of our experiences in Ukraine. I saw ‘hopefully’ as we always have a long list of what we want to write about but getting round to it is another matter!

  11. Great post! Thanks for all the inspiration… I hope to visit the concrete Nutsubidze neighbourhood tomorrow. Do you have any address of the place where I find the sky bridge? I’m trying to find it, but internet is not very helpful tonight. 🙂

  12. Check on the google map at the top of the page, I have them all tagged there! But if you are walking any distance on Nutsubidze, you won’t be able to miss them on the north side of the street.

  13. Hey guys 😀

    Thankx for your inspirational website! Somehow I love soviet architecture (okay, more the Zuckerbäckerstil of Stalins era)!

    Aaaaaaaaand: Great introduction of yourselfs 😀

  14. Tbilisi is a Brutalist Babe!

    This post has been saved for my trip to Tbilisi – not sure when it’ll be, but it has to be next year! The Former Ministry of Highways is pretty crazy – glad to see its new tenants has maintained much of its original charm!

  15. It’s brutally babealicious for sure!

    I hope you love Tbilisi! If you need any tips when you’re there, let me know – I’ve explored the city pretty thoroughly over my couple of times there and have an amazing Airbnb recommendation 🙂

  16. “Long story short, Christianity is a big deal in Georgia, …“ What?? What did you just say about Georgia and Christianity??? You are walking in the country who’s land is flooded by the blood of martyrs!!!!!!!!! And after 2000 years of crucifixion, “genocides”, wars and torture, the heroic deeds of Georgian kings and saints – you degenerates are walking on this land and saying “Oh, Chriatianity is a big deal in Georgia”??? Whom the hell are you thinking you talking about, – this is Georgia!!!!!!!!! Such sick degenerates shouldn’t even be allowed to say “Georgia” with their cock-sucking mouthes

  17. First things first: thanks for this great and insightful post ! I just wanted to give a little update (August 2018) for anyone who is considering taking the tour,
    We have done the tour on our own going by metro and taxi. If you do so, allow yourself plenty of time (pretty much a whole day) as getting around (we did it by metro, taxi and walking) and finding the buildings takes some time. If you are on a tight schedule, taking the guided tour would probably be the better option.
    Regarding the apartment block in the Nutsubidze neighbourhood: the building with the sky bridge is actually around Ermile Bedia Street (district 1, I have to double-check the exact address) not in district 3 as pictured in the map above. Anyway, make sure to allow yourself some time to explore the whole area, as there are some interesting buildings aside from the apartment block with the sky bridge.
    With respect to the former archelogical museum: apparently it is undergoing renovation now and there is no possibility to see the interior anymore. The whole structure is locked and guarded and huge piles if rubbish (mostly furniture) can be found at the entrance. Still, it is worth a look.
    As stated in your post, there is no way to get inside of Laguna Vere and people are indeed not very keen on letting you inside. The whole area is now used by some road assistance company and trucks and cars are parked on the inside with “private area/no entrance/no photos” signs everywhere.

  18. Carl that’s so helpful! I contacted Brutal tours but they didn’t get back to me. I’m in Tbilisi at the moment, is it possible you could show more information on your route?

  19. Thanks so much for the comments about your experience, Carl! I’ve updated the map with the correct location of the Nutsubidze apartment buildings. So embarrassed over here. 🙂

    Also interesting about the former Archaeological Museum — I wonder, is the construction happening in both the front and back “modules” of the building? I’m always a little sad when these amazing buildings get closed off (particularly about Buzludzha, in Bugaria), but hopeful that they’ll be restored to a usable state.

  20. Taxify is a great app for finding taxis in Tbilisi! Could be an easy way to get from monument to monument 🙂

  21. Oh, no need to be embarrassed. It gave us the chance to explore more of that area, so it was actually pretty good, that the map wasn’t too detailed. 🙂
    Regarding the musuem: it seems they are only renovating the interior, front and back modules are pretty much in the same state as in your pictures above. A security guard has now an improvised office in the museum and electricity has been restored. It is hard to say what the future plans for the museum are.

  22. Hi guys, there is an interesting open call if you wish to contribute: https://blueshield.ge/?p=7701&fbclid=IwAR2XcqmEnEFJes3v9u06CS2WJO2PM_OI6aeJwkP-NGxyWGkvpnSIA4meHGs&lang=en

  23. Lol. K.